根据戈尔丁（Goldin，2006年，第3页）的说法，"妇女的就业，教育和家庭"已经经历了"进化变化的四个不同阶段"。 从19世纪末到1920年代的第一阶段是一个特殊的时期，这里出现了一群未婚且还年轻的独立女工（同上）。 在第二阶段，由于外在原因，甚至已婚妇女也被"鼓励"到外面工作。 "随着新型信息的到来，对办公室和其他文职工作人员的需求增加了"（第5页）。 第三阶段伴随着受过高等教育的妇女人数的增加，"创造了预定的兼职工作"（第7页），她们确实有更多的机会在更广泛的社会环境中担任教师，秘书和社会工作者 等等，而不是家庭或邻居。 第四阶段的特征是女性的经济状况发生质的变化（第8页）。
According to Goldin (2006, p.3), there have been "four distinct phases of evolutionary change" of "women's employment, education, and family". The Phase I from the late 19th century to the 1920s is a particular period that there had emerged a group of independent female workers who are unmarried and also young (ibid). During the Phase II, even married women had got "encouraged" to work outside because of the exogenous causes, e.g. "there had ben an increased demand for office and other clerical workers with the arrival of new types of information" (p.5). The Phase III came along with the increased numbers of highly educated women, "the creation of scheduled part-time employment" (p.7), they indeed had got more chances to work in a wider social context as teachers, secretaries and social workers, etc., rather than home or neighborhood. The IV Phase is characterized by a qualitative change of women's economic statuses (p.8).
Goldin's arguments of "the quiet revolution" is very interesting and also meaningful. It can be perceived that from his perspective, the revolution started from more than one hundred ago, and has been facilitated firstly by outside changing factors resulted from increased industrialization, globalization, and then by women's altered awareness of self-identities, e.g. highly educated women started to and attempted to redefine what they would like to achieve with less influences brought by their past generations. Such a great attempt can be seen as a slow process of consciousness awakening – though being slow, but with far-reaching influences to the modern females' choices, dreams in the contemporary society. Women's great improvement of economic status nowadays can be traced back to the increased demand for female labour especially female office workers along with the development of technologies, which gave birth to new professionals of non-physical work. Therefore, it can be expected that along with the emerging Industry 4.0, women, to be more specific, smart women can get the chances to have much brighter careers with outstanding intelligence.
豪特（Hout）对社会流动性的关注已不只是一代又一代的下一代，这也许就是为什么他认为"谁在美国崛起"这个奇妙的问题是一个错误的问题（2015年，第27页） 。 实际上，有两个外部因素和内在因素会影响社会流动的潜力和趋势。 实际上，经常与家庭背景，童年经历等一起讨论的社会出身在个人成长中起着至关重要的作用，例如 出生和成长可能会"阻碍机会并造成不公平"（第29页），从而"限制成功"（第31页）。
Hout's focus on social mobility has gone beyond just the upward and the downward from one generation to its next and this might be why he thought that the fantastic question "who is moving up in America' is a wrong one (2015, p.27). There are indeed two many extrinsic and intrinsic factors that serve as influencing ones for the potential and trend of social mobility. In fact, social origin which is always discussed with family background, childhood experience, etc., plays a vital role in an individuals' growth, e.g. birth and upbringing may "block opportunity and create unfairness," (p.29) and thus "constrain success" (p.31).
Hout have made great efforts on exploring this topic with data collected, and the question that he thought wrong is really appealing for the most of people, regardless of the falling middle class and the anxious working class. This topic may be under heat discussion again especially during post-pandemic – a period of potential economic downturn with greater unemployment and a decline of household spending. Hout's argument may ignore how the upper class try to avoid the downward of its next generations – not only by offering great monetary and non-monetary support like educational spending and international network within the law, but by protecting wealth via tax avoidance with charity established. In such case, the one key part should be taken into the social mobility topic – what are the effective methods to enable the upper class to give up more resources to allow talented persons to realize social upward. To be more specific, knowing clearly about the history about social mobility as well as corresponding analyses may be not that useful for them to make great changes of their lives, people have already known the importance of good social origins. What they really need to see is the chances and opportunities in the current and near future period. In fact, it may be better if Hout can relate this topic with the rising Industry 4.0 characterized by advanced technologies of big data, cloud computing, showing people how can they take good advantage of this time.