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Dissertaion

youressay原创论文dissertation代写-Chinese history

日期:2020-09-23 阅读:次 作者:YourEssay
1920年代,中国目睹了包括性别和阶级在内的多样性。毛泽东在报告中解释说,社会阶级被颠倒了。在国民党政权下的封建重男轻女思想体系中,有四个权威,即“政治,氏族,宗教和男性权威”(毛62)。曾经由当地霸主统治的农民和由丈夫统治的妇女有足够的空间来表达自己的权利和自由,因为毛泽东说:“禁止妇女和穷人参加祖庙宴会的旧规则也被打破了”( 63)。
In 1920s, China witnessed the diversity including gender and class. In his report, Mao explains the social classes were turned upside down. There were four authorities in the feudal-patriarchal ideological system under Kuomintang’s regime, which were “authorities-political, clan, religious, and masculine” authorities (Mao 62). Peasants who were once ruled by the local bullies and women ruled by their husbands got space to speak up for their rights and freedom as Mao says “the old rule barring women and poor people from the banquets in the ancestral temples has also been broken” (63).

有几个因素导致了社会阶级等级制的急剧变化以及政治和社会动荡。长期不受法制的地主和当地霸权镇压农民的镇压加剧了工人阶级与中上层阶级之间的矛盾。在封建-父权制下受到不平等待遇的农民渴望有机会抵制封建地主的主导控制权。根据毛泽东的说法,“很久以来,(当地的欺凌者,卑劣的绅士和无法无天的地主)利用他们的权力对农民施暴,并践踏他们的脚下。这就是农民反应如此强烈的原因”(47)。毛泽东认为,农民革命是一项历史使命,注定要在这样的社会和历史环境下进行,以推翻过时的腐败的封建制度并建立新的民主力量(45)。其次,参加农民运动,组织革命活动的农民是人口众多的贫困农民。这些人不怕任何事情,因为那里的东西很杂乱,没有什么可失去的。毛泽东认为,“贫困农民占农民总数的70%”(52)。贫穷的农民群众不惧怕任何潜在的后果,造成了破坏,采取了伟大的革命行动,并推翻了农村地主和当地霸主的统治地位。一群渴望改变的志同道合,热情的农民还远远不够。另一个重要因素是团体的组织化组织,该组织将来自中国几乎每个角落的农民捆绑在一起,作为一个整体进行合作。即使是边远地区的农民也在移动,他们按照中央人民集团的指示执行革命性任务。
Several factors contributed to the drastic change of the hierarchical arrangement of social classes and the political and social turmoil. The long-term suppress from lawless landlords and local bullies over peasants had intensified the conflicts between the working class and the middle and upper class. Peasants who were treated unequally in the feudal-patriarchal system longed for an opportunity to resist the dominant control of the feudal landlords. According to Mao, “for ages [local bullies, bad gentry, and lawless landlords] have used their power to tyrannize over the peasants and trample them underfoot; that is why the peasants have reacted so strongly” (47). Mao believes the peasant revolution was a historical mission that was destined to take place under such social and historical circumstances to overthrow the obsolete and corrupt feudalism and establish new democratic forces (45). Secondly, the peasants that joined in the peasant movement and organized revolutionary activities were poor peasants in massive population. These people were not afraid of anything because there were so impecunious that they had nothing to lose. According to Mao, “the poor peasants comprise 70 percent” of the entire population of peasant (52). The mass of poor peasants, unafraid of any potential consequences, caused destruction, performed great revolutionary actions, and overthrew the dominance of landlords and local bullies in countryside.  A large group of like-minded and enthusiastic peasants longing for change was not enough. Another important factor was the structured organization of the groups, which tied peasants from almost every corner of China to work together as a whole. Even peasants in remote areas were on the move, and they followed the instruction deiminated by the central group of people to take revolutionary tasks.


有几个因素导致了社会阶级等级制的急剧变化以及政治和社会动荡。长期不受法制的地主和当地霸权镇压农民的镇压加剧了工人阶级与中上层阶级之间的矛盾。在封建-父权制下受到不平等待遇的农民渴望有机会抵制封建地主的主导控制权。根据毛泽东的说法,“很久以来,(当地的欺凌者,卑劣的绅士和无法无天的地主)利用他们的权力对农民施暴,并践踏他们的脚下。这就是农民反应如此强烈的原因”(47)。毛泽东认为,农民革命是一项历史使命,注定要在这样的社会和历史环境下进行,以推翻过时的腐败的封建制度并建立新的民主力量(45)。其次,参加农民运动,组织革命活动的农民是人口众多的贫困农民。这些人不怕任何事情,因为那里的东西很杂乱,没有什么可失去的。毛泽东认为,“贫困农民占农民总数的70%”(52)。贫穷的农民群众不惧怕任何潜在的后果,造成了破坏,采取了伟大的革命行动,并推翻了农村地主和当地霸主的统治地位。一群渴望改变的志同道合,热情的农民还远远不够。另一个重要因素是团体的组织化组织,该组织将来自中国几乎每个角落的农民捆绑在一起,作为一个整体进行合作。即使是边远地区的农民也在移动,他们按照中央人民集团的指示执行革命性任务。
Overall, a collective social movement could not be done only by one person. Mao’s writing provides insights about how effective social protest and revolutions were performed under what condition. Considering the large population of uneducated peasants who were in puberty, the Kuomintang’s regime was not effective enough to deal with the need of the people who were from the bottom of the social hierarchy. In comparison, the communist party attended the needs and demands of the poor peasant, and used their power to attack the unreasonable formation of social structure and the ruling of lawless landlords, local bullies, and bad gentry. On the other hand, women were under such patriarchal system that they were ruled by their husbands. The anger of the peasants and the women were strong enough as a force to overthrow the feudalism. 
Works Cited
Mao, Zedong. “Report on the Peasant Movement in Hunan”. Mao Zedong and China’s Revolutions: A Brief History with Documents, edited by Timothy Cheek, St. Martin’s Press, 2002, pp.41-75.
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